The seven new wonders of the world are called the monuments that were winners in an international competition, inspired by the list of seven wonders of the ancient world and made by a private company named New Open World Corporation. The initiative came from the Swiss businessman Bernard Weber, founder of the company.
1. Chichen Itza
Chichén Itzá (in Mayan: Chichén Itzá, ‘Boca-del-pozo’) is one of the main archaeological sites of the Yucatán peninsula in Mexico, located In the municipality of Tinum, in the state of Yucatan. Important and renowned vestige of the Mayan civilization, the main buildings that remain there correspond to the so-called late classic or early postclassic period (800-1100 AD).
The monumental architecture that has reached today, which is emblematic of the site, has a clear Toltec influence. The god who presides over the site, according to Mayan mythology, is Kukulcan, a Mayan representation of Quetzalcoatl, a god taken from the pantheon of Toltec culture.
Chichén Itzá was a city or ceremonial center, that passed through diverse constructive times and influences of the different towns that occupied it and that impelled it from its foundation.
The archaeological zone of Chichén Itzá was inscribed in the World Heritage list by Unesco in 1988.3 On July 7, 2007, the Kukulcan Temple, located in Chichén Itzá, was recognized as one of The New Seven Wonders of the World Modern, by a private initiative without the support of Unesco, but with the recognition of millions of voters around the world.
2. The Colosseum in Rome, Italy
The Coliseum (in Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium Romae) is an amphitheater from the time of the Roman Empire, built in the first century AD. C. and located in the center of the city of Rome. It was originally called the Flavian Amphitheater (Flavian Amphitheater Flavium), in honor of the flavia dynasty of emperors that built it, and was renamed Colosseum by a large statue that was nearby, the Colossus of Nero, which has not reached us. For its conservation and history, the Colosseum is one of the most famous monuments of classical antiquity. It was declared a World Heritage Site in 1980 by Unesco and one of the New Seven Wonders of the Modern World on July 7, 2007.
In antiquity it had a capacity of about 50,000 spectators, with eighty rows of tiers. Those who were close to the arena were the Emperor and the senators, and as they ascended, the lower strata of the society. Gladiator fights and public spectacles took place at the Coliseum. It was built just east of the Roman Forum, and works began between 70 AD. C. and 72 d. Under the mandate of the Emperor Vespasian. The amphitheater, which was the largest ever built in the Roman Empire, was completed in 80 AD. C. by the Emperor Tito, and was modified during the reign of Domiciano.4 Its inauguration lasted 100 days, participating in her all the Roman town and dying in its celebration dozens of gladiators and beasts that gave their life by the pleasure and the Spectacle of the people.
The Colosseum was used for almost 500 years, celebrating in him the last games of the history in century I SAW, well later of the traditional date of the fall of the Roman Empire of the West in 476 d. The Byzantines also used it during Century VI. In addition to the gladiator fights, many other public spectacles took place here, such as naumaquias, hunting of animals, executions, recreations of famous battles and plays based on classical mythology. The building was no longer used for these purposes in the High Middle Ages. Later, it served as refuge, factory, seat of a religious order, fortress and quarry. From its ruins, abundant material was extracted for the construction of other buildings, until it was converted into a Christian sanctuary, in honor of the martyred captives during the first years of Christianity. This measure helped to stop their plunder and to keep it.
Although the structure is seriously damaged due to earthquakes and stonecutters, the Colosseum has always been seen as an icon of Imperial Rome and is one of the best preserved examples of Roman architecture. It is one of the most popular tourist attractions in modern Rome and is still closely linked to the Catholic Church, so the pope leads the viacrucis to the amphitheater every Good Friday.
3. Christ redeemer
The Christ the Redeemer or Christ of Corcovado is a statue of 30 meters, with the pedestal of 8 meters, of Jesus of Nazareth with open arms showing the city of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil. It is located at 710 meters above sea level in the Tijuca National Park, at the top of Corcovado Mountain. It was inaugurated on October 12, 1931, after approximately five years of works.
4. The Great Wall of China
The Great Wall of China is an ancient Chinese fortification built and rebuilt between the fifth century BC. C. and the sixteenth century (Modern Age) to protect the northern border of the Chinese Empire during the successive imperial dynasties of the Xiongnu nomadic attacks of Mongolia and Manchuria.
Counting its ramifications and secondary constructions, it is estimated to be about 7000 kilometers long, from the Korean border, on the edge of the Yalu River, to the Gobi desert, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge Of Inner Mongolia, although today only 30% of it is conserved. On average, it measures 6 to 7 meters high and 4 to 5 meters wide.
5. Machu Picchu, in Cuzco, Perú.
Machu Picchu (“Old Mountain”) is the contemporary name given to a llaqta – an ancient Andean-Inca settlement built before the 15th century on the rocky promontory between the Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu mountains on the eastern slope of the Central Mountain Range , To the south of Peru and to 2490 msnm, altitude of its main place. His original name would have been Llaqtapata.
According to documents from the mid-sixteenth century, Machu Picchu would have been one of the rest homes of Pachacutec, the ninth Inca of Tahuantinsuyo between 1438 and 1470. However, some of its best constructions and the obvious ceremonial character of the main Access to the llaqta account for its origin prior to Pachacutec and its presumed use as a religious sanctuary. Both uses, palace and sanctuary, would not have been incompatible. Even when their alleged military character is discussed, so the popular descriptions of “fortress” or “citadel” could have been overcome.
Machu Picchu is considered at the same time a masterpiece of architecture and engineering. Its peculiar architectural and landscape features, and the veil of mystery that has woven around it much of the literature published on the site, have made it In one of the most popular tourist destinations on the planet.
Machu Picchu has been on UNESCO’s World Heritage List since 1983, as part of an entire cultural and ecological complex known as the historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu. On 7 July 2007 Machu Picchu was declared one of the new seven wonders of the modern world in a ceremony held in Lisbon (Portugal), with the participation of one hundred million voters worldwide.
6. Petra, Jordan.
Petra (Arabic, البتراء al-Batrā’) is an important archaeological site in Jordan, and the capital of the ancient Nabataean kingdom. The name Petra comes from the Greek πέτρα which means stone, and its name is perfectly suitable; It is not a city built with stone but literally excavated and carved in stone.
The settlement of Petra is located in a narrow valley, to the east of the valley of the Aravá that extends from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. The most famous remains of Petra are undoubtedly its constructions carved in the same rock of the valley (hemispeos), in particular, the buildings known as the Khazneh (the Treasure) and the Deir (the Monastery).
Founded in antiquity towards the end of century VIII a. C. by the Edomitas, was occupied in Century VI a. C. by the Nabataeans that made it prosper thanks to its situation in the route of the caravans that carried the incense, the spices and other luxury goods between Egypt, Syria, Arabia and the south of the Mediterranean.
Towards the sixth century d. C., the change of commercial routes and the earthquakes suffered, led to the abandonment of the city by its inhabitants. It fell into oblivion until in 1812 the place was rediscovered for the Western world by the Swiss explorer Jean Louis Burckhardt (1784-1817).
7. The Taj Mahal in Agra, India.
The Taj Mahal is a mausoleum built between 1632 and 1653 in the city of Agra in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The Taj Mahal is a mausoleum built between 1632 and 1653 in Agra, Uttar Pradesh. India), on the banks of the Yamuna River, by the Muslim emperor Shah Jahan of the Mogul dynasty. The imposing complex of buildings was erected in honor of his favorite wife, Arjumand Bano Begum – better known as Mumtaz Mahal – who died in the birth of his fourteenth daughter. It is estimated that its construction required the effort of some 20,000 workers under the direction of a group of architects led by court architect Ustad Ahmad Lahori.
The Taj Mahal is considered the most beautiful example of Mogul architecture, a style that combines elements of Islamic, 1 Persian, 2 Indian and even Turkish architectures.3 This monument has achieved special notoriety for the romantic character of its inspiration. Although the mausoleum covered by the white marble dome is the best known part, the Taj Mahal is a walled complex of buildings that occupies 17 hectares and which also includes a large mosque, a guest house and gardens.
The monument is a major tourist destination in India. In 1983, it was recognized by Unesco as a World Heritage Site for being “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the world heritage masterpieces admired universally”. Described by the poet Rabindranath Tagore as “A Tear on the Cheek of Time,” the Taj Mahal is a symbol of the rich history of India. The mausoleum attracts between 7 and 8 million visitors each year and in 2007 was designated one of the New Seven Wonders of the Modern World.
It was considered that the Great Pyramid of Giza (Egypt) would be the eighth honorable wonder. The Great Pyramid had been excluded from the vote, being the oldest and the only surviving of the seven wonders of the ancient world. This was in the face of strong opposition from Egyptian cultural authorities such as Zahi Hawass, secretary general of the Egyptian Antiquities Superior Council (Minister of Antiquities until 2011), who described this contest as an “advertising operation” .
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