La mujer más poderosa del antiguo Perú

Dama de Cao

Se llama Señora de Cao o Dama de Cao a una momia hallada en la Huaca Cao Viejo (departamento de La Libertad), perteneciente a una gobernante de la cultura mochica, que se piensa que gobernó el norte del actual Perú en el siglo IV d.C. 

Su hallazgo se compara con el del Señor de Sipán. Antes del hallazgo, se pensaba que sólo los hombres habían ejercido altos cargos en el antiguo Perú. Se cree que la dama tenía el estatus de gobernante en la sociedad teocrática del valle del río Chicama, además de ser considerada un personaje semi divino . la exquisitez de los adornos y vestidos que acompañan el fardo funerario de la mujer confirmaron el estatus.

Causa de la muerte

Una vez abierto el fardo funerario de la Señora de Cao, a cargo de la arqueóloga Arabel Fernández López, se realizaron muchos hallazgos importantes, y entre ellos la posible causa de la muerte. El vientre altamente dilatado y otras características dieron como resultado que la causa fue muerte post parto por efecto de una crisis convulsiva conocida como eclampsia.

Recientes estudios realizados por la Fundación Wiese a través del forense español, Jordi Esteban Farre, echaron nuevas luces sobre la causa de la muerte de la Dama de Cao, avalando la teoría de la causa de muerte por post parto. probablemente la causa fueron fuertes convulsiones, las que se le conoce como eclampsia. “Estaba embarazada, las estrías abdominales hacen pensar que en el tercer trimestre de gestación, lo que acentúa la hipótesis de la muerte post parto, o que también que haya sido inducida a un aborto”

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“Apus” the mountain gods

“The Apus”

The Apus or mountain gods are currently one of the most revered deities of the Andean world.

The man of the Andes has a worldview very different from that of the western man with respect to what the mountains are, for the man of the Andes the mountain is a divine spirit that has a great power for the life of the men who live in its environment, for the simple man of city or western the mountain is only a gigantic elevation of land, lacking life and inert, for the Andean man the mountain is the “Apu”, whose Andean meaning is tutelary spirit.

The largest silver mine of the new world in the XVl,XVll,XVlll centuries.


Sacred mountains of the Incas

In the Andean cosmovision, the universe was divided into three kingdoms: Hanan Pacha (superior kingdom / kingdom of the gods), Kay Pacha (kingdom of men) and Uku Pacha (the lower kingdom or underworld). The mountains rise from the world of men to the Hanan Pacha, giving the Incas the possibility of communicating with their gods. The Apus were protective spirits and watched over the people in their territory, their livestock and their crops.

The people, in return for this care, made offerings to their Apus with chicha (corn liquor) and coca leaves. But something more macabre was done in times of despair. The Incas resorted to human sacrifices; the mummy Juanita, the Inca Maiden of Ice, is better known as the “Lady of Ampato”, since it was found on the top of Mount Ampato in 1995. It was apparently a sacrifice offered to the mountain, between 1450 and 1480.

Apu Ausangate.

the mountain gods were and are venerated by the powers they have; among them:

1.They are tutelary ancestors of a certain region.

2.Protect communities and people living in their surroundings from evil spirits and diseases.

3.They are the owners of the water resources, they control the rain, the snow the rivers and lakes.

4.Know the healing properties of plants, and instruct Andean doctors how to use them against diseases.

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The Coca Leaf Throughout The Time

Coca in the Pre-Hispanic Period

It is imposible to talk about the coca leaf without knowing the cultural context in which the use of this controversial plant developed; It was used in rituals and medicines since times long before the inca empire, approximately 4000 B.C. before the arrival of the spanish in Peru, there was not a single ceremony celebrated by the incas where the coca leafwas not present as part of the offerings made to the andean gods. What is more the coca leaf was used in varied medicines and as a natural anesthetic in important operations such as cranial trepanations in which andean doctors specialized and achieved spectacular technical advances in their era.
During the inca empire the Coca leaf  was always a principal element offered to the gods through religious rituals, and also through socialization of productive activities, the use of this plant was prominent in all the territories dominated by the incas, Due to the social and religious importance that coca leaf acquired,the Incas established a monopoly over its cultivation.Coca was important for trade for other products, gifts for their allies, military consumption, the work force of the empire, and for its curative and religious purposes.To guarantee the continual supply of coca agricultural colonies were established in the outskirts of the jungle dedicated exclusively to its cultivation.

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Coca in the spanish period

The Spanish attempted to ban the use of coca claiming that "it is a diabolic habit carried out by heathens that is the prime enemy of the expansion of Christianity"

However this idea could never have been practiced because for the indigenous population the leaf with its anesthetic and stimulating properties allowed them to work for days on end with little food and water in the mines exploited bby the spanish.

On the contrary the systematic commercialism of the coca saw a massive increases, during the colonial period, the explotation of the large silver mine of potosi as well as other important mineral extraction sites opened a massive market for sale and use of the coca leaf, in the area of potosi the people were peaying double the price that in Cusco, this generated fabulous profits for the spanish traders specialized in the business. In potosi the annual expenditure in coca reached one million pesos, yet on food,clothing and other general items less than 400,000 pesos were spent. These figures clearly explain why coca became the most significant agricultural product under Spanish rule, due to its large commercial value taxes paid to the king of spain could piad in coca.

Coca in the Republic period

In the 19th century several investigators,Gaedeke in 1855 and Albert Nieman in 1858 amongst them, helped towards the discovery of cacaine by the isolation of what is known as erythroxyline,Initially they generated a series of chemical products for medicianal purposes that began to be produced in pharmaceutical laboratories, but at the same time the increasing abuse of the drug led to the "coaine mania habit" in 1880. In 1914 the Harrison narcotic act declared the use of cocaine illegal,and in 1930 the North American authorities banned the use of cocaine as an ingredient in Coca Cola. In 1954 at the ninth United Nations narcotics conference in New York programs for the replacement of the cultivation of coca and its use were approved.

The Use of the Coca Leaf in Modern Andean Culture

Owing to its traditional use for millenniumsin andean society,today coca continuees to have diverse medicinal,cultural,social and religious functions used in everyday life.

As a offering to the mother earth (the Pachamama)
the ritual should be carried out by an andean priest or other healers who are known for its special spiritual powers.

In case of serious illness and in divination and luck.

theCoca Leaf, 14 natural Alkaloids
natural alkaloids of the coca leaf: no damage to the contrary are miraculous

1.- Cocaine. It is the methyl ether of benzoyl egnonine, has anesthetic and analgesic properties

2.- Egnonina. It is a carboxylated derivative of atropine, has properties of metabolizing fats, carbohydrates and carbohydrates. Thin blood

3.- Atropine. Or scopolamine, it is anesthetic that produces dryness in the respiratory tree.

4.- Pectin. It is absorbent and antidiarreic, along with Vitamin E, regulates the production of melanin for the skin.

5.- Papaína. This protease, which contains papaya in a greater proportion, is very similar to animal cathepsin, it is a kind of ferment that speeds up digestion.

6.- Hyggin. It excites the salivary glands when there is oxygen deficiency in the environment.

7.- Globulin. It is a cardiotonic that regulates the lack of oxygen in the environment, improving blood circulation. Avoid sorojche (altitude sickness).

8.- Pyridine. Accelerates the formation and functioning of the brain, increases blood supply to the pituitary gland and glands, resulting in an improvement of the body in general.

9. Quinoline It prevents the formation of dental caries along with phosphorus and calcium.

10.-Conina. It is a powerful anesthetic.

11.- Cocamina. It is an analgesic that, together with the previous one, helps to increase the anesthetic and analgesic properties of natural cocaine.

12.- Inulin. Refreshes and improves the functioning of the liver, the secretion of bile and its accumulation to the gallbladder. It is diuretic, helps eliminate non-physiological toxic substances. It is a polysaccharide, very similar to vitamins B-12, which produces increased blood cells.

13.- Benzoin. Accelerates the formation of muscle cells and prevents the putrefaction of food, hence its therapeutic properties for gastritis and ulcers.

14.- Reserpina. It regulates blood pressure in hypo and hypertension and helps the formation of bone cells.

These 14 alkaloids, the amino acids that they contain, the acids and vitamins A, B1, C and E, thiamine, niacin and riboflavin, make it the most complete plant in the universe in Non-Protein Nitrogen, which eliminates toxins and pathologies of the body, obtaining optimal combinations with fruits and medicinal plants.

Pachamama, a way of seeing the world and living it





“Pacha” is an Aymara and Quechua word that means land, cosmos, universe, time and space. The Month of the Pachamama or Mother Earth begins with different celebrations, especially in the Andean areas, as a ritual of gratitude and reconnection in the month of August.

It is knowing how to live in harmony and balance, in harmony with the cycles of Mother Earth, the cosmos, life and history, and in balance with all forms of existence. And that is precisely the way and the horizon of the community; It implies first knowing how to live and then living together. You can not Live Well if others live poorly, or if Mother Nature is damaged. Living Well means understanding that the deterioration of a species is the deterioration of the whole.

Pachamama´ s ritual.

Ritual to the Pachamama

The ceremony of the Pachamama begins with the day before or “the day before”, by means of its preparations, the instructions are left to the participants of the ritual about what to bring and how to dress. The materials to be used are left, the place where to dig the hole and everything necessary for the central day. Normally incense is lit from the previous day as a way of announcing, cleaning or alerting the spirits.

The best moment for the offerings to the Pachamama is at sunset, in full sun sunset. Natural light ends, night begins, in this interval the “energy pachachaka” (spiritual bridge) shows greater openness and pachamama with the other spirits are more present. The sacred fire of the ritual will illuminate the space when the sunlight has left the horizon. In other towns it is customary to start the ceremonies at dawn, midday or midnight.

Punctuality is important, once the ceremony has begun, the sacred circle of participants is closed and you can not participate in the ritual or leave it until its completion. The reception of the participants is carried out with the greatest hospitality, with presentations and cordial greetings. They are not allowed to take photographs, or record videos unless you have the permission of the offeror.

The offerings (commonly called “dispatch” or “pagapu”), are placed around the table, hole or in the multicolored mantle arranged by the offeror who directs the ritual, similar to an altar of curanderismo work. Drinks (Chicha, beer, liquor, red wine); holy water, sweets, coca leaves (sacred Andean plant, mediator with the spirits), various objects (money, coins, amulets, colored stones); food (bread, cookies, fruit). Flours, perfumes, seeds and other things from the land that we have at home (sesame, flax, wheat, lentils, beans, chickpeas, rice, huayruros, etc.), the seeds are placed in a clay bowl or bowl; Incense or incense additionally. The ceremony may be accompanied by white or colored candles and various objects that symbolize the social context, photos, amulets, seashells (“mullu”), money, ekekos, pucara bulls, cow dung, etc.

According to the tradition, rituals and ceremonies of this type are in charge of the “Paqo” or “Altomisayoc”, for the Aymaras the “yatiris” are responsible for carrying out these ceremonies.

The participants are invited, usually there is no free income, the one who attends although if presented the same day of the ceremony must be invited by the offeror. The ritual of the pachamama is a voluntary act in which the only requirement to be present is to ask permission to enter and agree with the organizers on the details of the ritual (time, dress, offering, etc.). There is no attendance limit. On the day of the celebration the participants will place colored ribbons on certain parts of the body: ankles, wrists and neck, according to the beliefs it is to be liked by the pachamama and avoid any reprimand. Others use strings of black and white thread, made with llama wool as much as possible.

The hole or work table represents in itself a form of altar and a “waca” at the same time (a sacred place), a “paqarina” (a symbolic uterus “on earth) and” pachachaka “(a bridge or contact with the higher instances), at the same time. All in one. This is dug in a circular way to a depth of about half a meter by one meter in diameter (as if preparing a “pachamanka” in the earth), which usually must be located at an open point and exposed to the sun, ideal if it is close to a tree or a mountain slope (“apu”). Currently, certain pachamama ceremonies are held in urban parks, wacas or on the beach. If the hole is not circular, there is no problem. The important is the intention to do the best possible.

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There are some considerations to bear in relation to the synergy of the offering with the activation of the elements:

  1. Activate the fire.Light two fires, one small inside the hole and another large one outside of it. Sacred fire allows the earth to rise to the mountains, to heaven. In the small bonfire, place firewood, holy wood, laurel branches, rosemary, olive, eucalyptus and tobacco. The big fire is just wood. This must be located at least five meters from the hole dug. The big bonfire is optional and can be used to deposit small writings on white paper of things from which we must get rid of, our mistakes and defects. It serves and for the pardon with the superior instances, pachamama that is present must intercede with these requests.
  2. Activate the air. Through mediator fire. Light the incense, thanks to the smells the earth is sensitized to remember its wonders. Participants can smoke first and then smoke the earth (this is part of the ritual). Cigars are usually without a filter. Tobacco ash must be preserved to observe its characteristics, then it will be used to paint the face of each participant. The ashes of white color will indicate that the pachamama is happy and blesses her offerings.
  3. Activate the water.First toast with the earth. Spray some of the drinks on the ground. Chicha (corn liquor), beer or “aguardiente”, then each must toast with the earth. She lives and feels like us and we must toast with her.
  4. Activate the earth.It is time to start chewing without swallowing (“chaqchar”) a little coca leaves and meanwhile wait for the turn to be able to offer to the earth. The offerings are initiated one by one or by two, generally in a compassionate attitude and submission to the cosmos. On our knees in front of the pit we begin to deliver what we have previously offered. At this time the participant can perform some pleglaria, request, song, prayer, prayer, thought, namaste or meditation (“silence or emptiness is very well appreciated by her”) with the pachamama, according to their creed or religion. These offerings must be made with both hands. You start with the coca leaf and the holy water if you have. Then the meals, sweets and other offerings. This moment is relevant for our requests for this new year, these must be previously written on multicolored paper and be released in the small fire inside the hole. At the end of this act the participant must make the final toast with maize chicha with the pachamama. We must pay attention to the signs that the pachamama sends us through the coals of fire, ashes, noise, movements or unpredictable events that usually occur.
  5. Close is open. Activate the elements of the pachamama with the closing of the ritual. When all the participants have finished their tribute, each one must collaborate in covering the hole, at this point the earth is well nourished and satisfied with our offerings. Optionally we can pray an Our Father (considering the present religious syncretism). The ceremony ends by covering the hole with small stones of different shape or color, covered with flower petals.
    To all this there are many ways to direct an office to the Pachamama, it will depend on the Andean region where it is carried out or the particular style of the paqo or healer, the important thing is that its three essential components are not missing: The paqo, the offering and The guests.



Five must_see places in Cusco

Cuzco or Cusco (in southern Quechua: Qusqu or Qosqo, pronounced [qo̝s.qɔ]) is a city in southeastern Peru located on the eastern slope of the Andes mountain range, in the Huatanay river basin, a tributary of the Vilcanota. It is the capital of the department of Cuzco and, furthermore, as stated in the Peruvian constitution, it is the “historical capital” of the country.

The city of Cuzco, according to the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics, is the eighth most populous city in Peru, and in 2014, it housed a population of 420 137 inhabitants.
Plaza de armas, from Saqsayhuamán.
Formerly the capital of the Inca Empire, one of the most important cities of the Viceroyalty of Peru, at that time, and in the hands of the Spaniards, it was adorned with churches, palaces and baroque and neoclassical plazas, which is what today make it The main tourist place of Peru. Declared Patrimony of the Humanity in 1983 by Unesco, usually is denominated, due to the great amount of monuments that owns, the “Rome of America”.

  1. Sacsayhuaman

    Sacsayhuaman (in Quechua Saqsaywaman, from saqsay, place of satiation, and waman, hawk, that is, “Place where the hawk is satiated”) is an Inca “ceremonial fortress” located two kilometers north of the city of Cuzco. It began to build during the government of Pachacútec, in century XV; However, it was Huayna Capac who gave the final touch in the sixteenth century. With the annihilation of the Inca nobility disappeared from human memory the techniques that allowed the construction of this monumental fortress or sanctuary; Which produced the admiration of Pizarro and his men. Pedro Sancho, secretary of Pizarro, leaves a first description of the building; But the most detailed is that of the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega (Cronista mestizo). The “ceremonial fortress” of Sacsayhuamán is with its megalithic walls, the greatest architectural work that the Incas did during their apogee. From the fort there is a unique panoramic view of the surroundings, including the city of Cuzco.

  2. Moray

    The archaeological remains of Moray are located 7 kilometers from Maras, in the Sacred Valley of the Incas, 38 km northwest of Cusco. It is possible to reach Moray through the road that leaves the village or directly from a detour from the main road. Moray is a Quechua word and names a sector occupied by the peasant communities of Misminay and Kaccllarakay.

    The word Moray had something to do with the corn crop called Aymoray, or with the month of May, which is also called Aymoray, and also with the dehydrated potato that is the Moray or Moray.

    It was recognized in 1932 by the expedition of Shirppe Johnson, platforms like concentric rings. Each circle comprises a terrace that overlaps another, forming circles that are expanding. It can be accessed from one to another by climbing protruding stones (sarunas), nailed to the wall.

  3. Tipon 

    The Tipón group is located near Oropesa in the Community of Choquepata, 27 km. Southeast of Cusco, in Peru and along the Cusco-Puno highway. Contains enclosures, terraces and an intact ditch.

    The upper part of the complex is crossed by the Inca Trail along with an irrigation canal.

    It has probably been used as a laboratory for agricultural products by the various microclimates that are in this complex.

    Tipón is included as one of the 16 most important archaeological visits for tourists visiting this area.

    Apart from being an archaeological complex more, in this site is one of the largest works of irrigation in the terraces called also platforms, the incredible distribution of the water pipes in the open air.

    US Hydrogeologist Engineer Kenneth Wright has published a book on these hydraulic structures, which have earned the title “Marvel of Civil Engineering” at the Association of Civil Engineers of the United States (ASCE).

  4. Ollantaytambo

    Ollantaytambo (Quechua: Ollantay Tampu) is a town and archaeological site in Inca, capital of the district of Ollantaytambo (province of Urubamba), located to the south of Peru, to about 90 km to the northwest of the city of Cuzco.

    During the incanatus, Pachacutec conquered the region and built the town and a ceremonial center. In the time of the conquest it served like fort of Manco Inca Yupanqui, leader of the Inca resistance. It is the only incanate city in Peru that is still inhabited. In Ollantaytambo there are platforms of resistance (to avoid landslides), not agricultural as in the other archaeological sites of Cuzco. Today it is an important tourist attraction due to its Inca constructions and for being one of the most common starting points of the Inca road to Machu Picchu.

  5. Rainbow Mountain

Vinicunca or Winicunca, also called Mountain of Seven Colors, Rainbow Mountain or Mountain of Colors (the people call it Cerro Colorado) is a mountain of Peru with an altitude of 5,200 meters above sea level and owes its incredible coloration to the richness of minerals that houses its floor. It is located on the road to the Nevado Ausangate, in the Andes of Peru, Region Cusco, province of Quispicanchis.

The official entrance to the Rainbow Mountain is by a small town called Pitumarca, two hours from the city of Cusco, then a walk on foot, by car or motorcycle on the slopes of the mountain and then you can climb on horseback or on foot Rest of the way until arriving at the Mountain of Colors

The seven new wonders of the world

The seven new wonders of the world are called the monuments that were winners in an international competition, inspired by the list of seven wonders of the ancient world and made by a private company named New Open World Corporation. The initiative came from the Swiss businessman Bernard Weber, founder of the company.


1. Chichen Itza

Chichén Itzá (in Mayan: Chichén Itzá, ‘Boca-del-pozo’) is one of the main archaeological sites of the Yucatán peninsula in Mexico, located In the municipality of Tinum, in the state of Yucatan. Important and renowned vestige of the Mayan civilization, the main buildings that remain there correspond to the so-called late classic or early postclassic period (800-1100 AD).

The monumental architecture that has reached today, which is emblematic of the site, has a clear Toltec influence. The god who presides over the site, according to Mayan mythology, is Kukulcan, a Mayan representation of Quetzalcoatl, a god taken from the pantheon of Toltec culture.

Chichén Itzá was a city or ceremonial center, that passed through diverse constructive times and influences of the different towns that occupied it and that impelled it from its foundation.

The archaeological zone of Chichén Itzá was inscribed in the World Heritage list by Unesco in 1988.3 On July 7, 2007, the Kukulcan Temple, located in Chichén Itzá, was recognized as one of The New Seven Wonders of the World Modern, by a private initiative without the support of Unesco, but with the recognition of millions of voters around the world.

2. The Colosseum in Rome, Italy

The Coliseum (in Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium Romae) is an amphitheater from the time of the Roman Empire, built in the first century AD. C. and located in the center of the city of Rome. It was originally called the Flavian Amphitheater (Flavian Amphitheater Flavium), in honor of the flavia dynasty of emperors that built it, and was renamed Colosseum by a large statue that was nearby, the Colossus of Nero, which has not reached us. For its conservation and history, the Colosseum is one of the most famous monuments of classical antiquity. It was declared a World Heritage Site in 1980 by Unesco and one of the New Seven Wonders of the Modern World on July 7, 2007.

In antiquity it had a capacity of about 50,000 spectators, with eighty rows of tiers. Those who were close to the arena were the Emperor and the senators, and as they ascended, the lower strata of the society. Gladiator fights and public spectacles took place at the Coliseum. It was built just east of the Roman Forum, and works began between 70 AD. C. and 72 d. Under the mandate of the Emperor Vespasian. The amphitheater, which was the largest ever built in the Roman Empire, was completed in 80 AD. C. by the Emperor Tito, and was modified during the reign of Domiciano.4 Its inauguration lasted 100 days, participating in her all the Roman town and dying in its celebration dozens of gladiators and beasts that gave their life by the pleasure and the Spectacle of the people.

The Colosseum was used for almost 500 years, celebrating in him the last games of the history in century I SAW, well later of the traditional date of the fall of the Roman Empire of the West in 476 d. The Byzantines also used it during Century VI. In addition to the gladiator fights, many other public spectacles took place here, such as naumaquias, hunting of animals, executions, recreations of famous battles and plays based on classical mythology. The building was no longer used for these purposes in the High Middle Ages. Later, it served as refuge, factory, seat of a religious order, fortress and quarry. From its ruins, abundant material was extracted for the construction of other buildings, until it was converted into a Christian sanctuary, in honor of the martyred captives during the first years of Christianity. This measure helped to stop their plunder and to keep it.

Although the structure is seriously damaged due to earthquakes and stonecutters, the Colosseum has always been seen as an icon of Imperial Rome and is one of the best preserved examples of Roman architecture. It is one of the most popular tourist attractions in modern Rome and is still closely linked to the Catholic Church, so the pope leads the viacrucis to the amphitheater every Good Friday.

3. Christ redeemer

The Christ the Redeemer or Christ of Corcovado is a statue of 30 meters, with the pedestal of 8 meters,  of Jesus of Nazareth with open arms showing the city of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil. It is located at 710 meters above sea level in the Tijuca National Park, at the top of Corcovado Mountain. It was inaugurated on October 12, 1931, after approximately five years of works.

4. The Great Wall of China


The Great Wall of China is an ancient Chinese fortification built and rebuilt between the fifth century BC. C. and the sixteenth century (Modern Age) to protect the northern border of the Chinese Empire during the successive imperial dynasties of the Xiongnu nomadic attacks of Mongolia and Manchuria.

Counting its ramifications and secondary constructions, it is estimated to be about 7000 kilometers long,  from the Korean border, on the edge of the Yalu River, to the Gobi desert, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge Of Inner Mongolia, although today only 30% of it is conserved. On average, it measures 6 to 7 meters high and 4 to 5 meters wide.

5. Machu Picchu, in Cuzco, Perú.

Machu Picchu (“Old Mountain”) is the contemporary name given to a llaqta – an ancient Andean-Inca settlement built before the 15th century on the rocky promontory between the Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu mountains on the eastern slope of the Central Mountain Range , To the south of Peru and to 2490 msnm, altitude of its main place. His original name would have been Llaqtapata.

According to documents from the mid-sixteenth century, Machu Picchu would have been one of the rest homes of Pachacutec, the ninth Inca of Tahuantinsuyo between 1438 and 1470. However, some of its best constructions and the obvious ceremonial character of the main Access to the llaqta account for its origin prior to Pachacutec and its presumed use as a religious sanctuary. Both uses, palace and sanctuary, would not have been incompatible. Even when their alleged military character is discussed, so the popular descriptions of “fortress” or “citadel” could have been overcome.

Machu Picchu is considered at the same time a masterpiece of architecture and engineering. Its peculiar architectural and landscape features, and the veil of mystery that has woven around it much of the literature published on the site, have made it In one of the most popular tourist destinations on the planet.

Machu Picchu has been on UNESCO’s World Heritage List since 1983, as part of an entire cultural and ecological complex known as the historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu. On 7 July 2007 Machu Picchu was declared one of the new seven wonders of the modern world in a ceremony held in Lisbon (Portugal), with the participation of one hundred million voters worldwide.

6. Petra, Jordan.

Petra (Arabic, البتراء al-Batrā’) is an important archaeological site in Jordan, and the capital of the ancient Nabataean kingdom. The name Petra comes from the Greek πέτρα which means stone, and its name is perfectly suitable; It is not a city built with stone but literally excavated and carved in stone.

The settlement of Petra is located in a narrow valley, to the east of the valley of the Aravá that extends from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. The most famous remains of Petra are undoubtedly its constructions carved in the same rock of the valley (hemispeos), in particular, the buildings known as the Khazneh (the Treasure) and the Deir (the Monastery).

Founded in antiquity towards the end of century VIII a. C. by the Edomitas, was occupied in Century VI a. C. by the Nabataeans that made it prosper thanks to its situation in the route of the caravans that carried the incense, the spices and other luxury goods between Egypt, Syria, Arabia and the south of the Mediterranean.

Towards the sixth century d. C., the change of commercial routes and the earthquakes suffered, led to the abandonment of the city by its inhabitants. It fell into oblivion until in 1812 the place was rediscovered for the Western world by the Swiss explorer Jean Louis Burckhardt (1784-1817).

7. The Taj Mahal in Agra, India.

The Taj Mahal is a mausoleum built between 1632 and 1653 in the city of Agra in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The Taj Mahal is a mausoleum built between 1632 and 1653 in Agra, Uttar Pradesh. India), on the banks of the Yamuna River, by the Muslim emperor Shah Jahan of the Mogul dynasty. The imposing complex of buildings was erected in honor of his favorite wife, Arjumand Bano Begum – better known as Mumtaz Mahal – who died in the birth of his fourteenth daughter. It is estimated that its construction required the effort of some 20,000 workers under the direction of a group of architects led by court architect Ustad Ahmad Lahori.

The Taj Mahal is considered the most beautiful example of Mogul architecture, a style that combines elements of Islamic, 1 Persian, 2 Indian and even Turkish architectures.3 This monument has achieved special notoriety for the romantic character of its inspiration. Although the mausoleum covered by the white marble dome is the best known part, the Taj Mahal is a walled complex of buildings that occupies 17 hectares and which also includes a large mosque, a guest house and gardens.

The monument is a major tourist destination in India. In 1983, it was recognized by Unesco as a World Heritage Site for being “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the world heritage masterpieces admired universally”. Described by the poet Rabindranath Tagore as “A Tear on the Cheek of Time,” the Taj Mahal is a symbol of the rich history of India. The mausoleum attracts between 7 and 8 million visitors each year and in 2007 was designated one of the New Seven Wonders of the Modern World.

Honorable wonder
It was considered that the Great Pyramid of Giza (Egypt) would be the eighth honorable wonder. The Great Pyramid had been excluded from the vote, being the oldest and the only surviving of the seven wonders of the ancient world. This was in the face of strong opposition from Egyptian cultural authorities such as Zahi Hawass, secretary general of the Egyptian Antiquities Superior Council (Minister of Antiquities until 2011), who described this contest as an “advertising operation” .

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Machupicchu was built for the Inca gods

Magic masterpiece of humanity.

Machu Picchu (“Old Mountain”) is the contemporary name given to a llaqta – an ancient Andean-Inca settlement built before the 15th century on the rocky promontory between the Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu mountains on the eastern slope of the Central Mountain Range , To the south of Peru and to 2490 msnm, altitude of its main place. His original name would have been Llactapata

According to documents from the mid-sixteenth century, Machu Picchu would have been one of the rest homes of Pachacutec, the ninth Inca of Tahuantinsuyo between 1438 and 1470. However, some of its best constructions and the obvious ceremonial character of the main access road to the Citadel give an account of its origin prior to Pachacutec and its presumed use as a religious sanctuary. Both uses, that of palace and sanctuary, would not have been incompatible. Even when its alleged military character is discussed, so the popular descriptions of “fortress” or “citadel” could have been overcome.3

Machu Picchu is considered at the same time a masterpiece of architecture and engineering. Its peculiar architectural and landscape features, and the veil of mystery that has woven around it much of the literature published on the site, have made it One of the most popular tourist destinations on the planet.

Machu Picchu has been on UNESCO’s World Heritage List since 1983, as part of an entire cultural and ecological complex known as the historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu. On 7 July 2007, Machu Picchu was declared one of the new seven wonders of the modern world in a ceremony held in Lisbon (Portugal), with the participation of one hundred million voters worldwide.


Where it is located?
Machu Picchu which in Castilian means “old mountain”, is the most famous Inca citadel in the world. Located 112.5 kilometers northeast of Cusco, in the province of Urubamba, this architectural jewel is surrounded by temples, platforms and water channels.
History and architecture
Built in the fifteenth century at the request of the Inca Pachacutec, Machu Picchu is divided into two large sectors: the agricultural area comprising a vast network of terraces or artificial terraces and the urban area, made up of various buildings and plazas, among which the Temple of the Sun , Temple of the Three Windows, the Main Temple and the called condor sector.
Their constructions follow the classic Inca style: buildings with stone walls polished in rectangular form, united to each other without the use of amalgams, doors and windows trapezoidal.
Important data:
– Declared Cultural and Natural Heritage of humanity, being considered as important religious, political and administrative center of the Inca period.
-Machu Picchu was interconnected with the entire Inca Empire through the Qhapac Ñan, known route of the Inca’s roads.
– Its temperature ranges from 6.2 ° to 29 °, since it is located in a subtropical zone. Its rainy months are from December to April.
– Its majestic architecture comprises about 140 structures throughout the citadel.
– The average altitude of the citadel is 2 453 m s.n.m.
– The mountains of Huayna Picchu and Machu Picchu are ideal for panoramic photographs of the entire architectural complex.
– Its discovery is due to the researcher Hiram Bingham III who was looking for the last capital of the Incas Vilcabamba.
– Machu Picchu was declared “Historic Sanctuary of Peru” in the year 1981.

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Ways of transport in Perú

The difficult and varied geography of perú is the first condition presented for the development of transportation in this country, whether land, air, sea or river. Peru has a ground transportation system basically through roads which connect all department capitals and most of the provincial capitals, allowing any citizen to be able to mobilize with his vehicle to the main urban centers of this country , Which also includes a number of interprovincial bus lines, many of them with very modern and comfortable units.

The goods are transported in thousands of trucks that arrive even to zones and towns quite isolated of the territory.

Railroad transport is not very extensive in terms of railroad mileage and is basically used to transport minerals that move from the production centers to the export centers located in different ports. In some cases they also serve to transport passengers, including tourist trains.


this is the best and easiest way and but at the same time it is  expensive as well

but becarefull because in peru,there is a price difference for Peruvians and for foreigners that are from 150 usd to 400 usd according to the company ; you may land by :

  1. Peruvian Airlines
  2. Star Peru
  3. Latam
  4. Avianca
  5. Lcperu


this is the chepeast way of transporting in Perú varying from 30 usd to 80 usd according to the company, but take note that distances from a town to another are pretty long in here.

You may take these companies:

  1. Oltursa
  2. Palomino
  3. Cruz del Sur
  4. Exclusiva
  5. Tepsa
  6. Movil Tours


The train in Peru is quite scarce, and is only very popular in the route from Cusco to Machupicchu town or Aguas Calientes

There are two companies: Inka Rail and Peru Rail



Strong evidences that the Pisco is 100 % Peruano

1. History of the Pisco.

By the chroniclers of the time we know that the grape arrived in Peru in the sixteenth century, from the Canary Islands, and that soon after, in Cuzco, began to produce wines, the first in Peru and South America. However, thanks to the climatic conditions of the valley of Ica, it was there where the cultivation of the black grape brought by the Spaniards underwent a great expansion. Over the years, this grape was adapted to the environmental conditions of the stony soil and the desert climate typical of that and many other coastal valleys of the Peruvian South, until being genetically transformed into what we know today as the grape breaks, Peruvian variety by Excellence, whose own characteristics gives the unmistakable flavor to our grape brandy: Pisco.

Historians have found different evidence that Ica had already begun to make such grape spirits by the end of the sixteenth century, and that by the middle of the seventeenth century the trade of this product “in Pisco bottles” had experienced a vertiginous growth . In a note of 1630 this explicit and direct reference to the Pisco is made: “The Pisco valley is still the most abundant of excellent wines from all over Peru. There is one that competes with our sherry, the so-called Pisco brandy; To be extracted from the small grape is one of the most exquisite liquors that is drunk in the world.

From the port of Pisco the product was distributed along the entire Peruvian and Chilean coast and exported to the different ports of the Pacific and to Europe. By the end of the 18th century, it is estimated that the production of grape brandy, which came mainly from the valleys of Ica and Pisco, represented 90% of total wine production.

2.Chile was Perú.

The territory that is currently Chile was conquered by Incas of Perú around 1475 by Tupac Inca Yupanqui and was part of the Tahuantinsuyo (the inca empire) until 1532; after it Chile became part of the viceroyalty of Perú until 1818.

3. The name Pisco.

The wine in colonial times was drank only but spaniards it was forbidden for mestizos, blacks, incas, etc.

Due to those prohibitions black people from  pisco (a peruvian town ) found another way of elaborating alcohol from grapes and it was the distillation of grapes that people started calling  commonly Pisco.

4. Characteristics of the real Pisco.

1. The right  temperature and height for pruducing the best grapes to the Pisco are in Perú.

2. The Sub-species of grape that gives the special flavour to the pisco is the “quebranta ” that only grows in Perú.

3. The distillate of grape to be called Pisco must have an alcoholic grade between 38 to 48 and the drink of chile does not arrive to it; they need to blend it with water and sugar.

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Inca food “the chuño”

The potato is the flagship product of our country, and last May 30th we celebrated its day. However, few know of a derivative of this tuber that is indispensable in the diet of many Peruvians, especially in the Andes.

We speak of chuño, is the derivative of the bitter potato which can be preserved for decades and that has been produced for hundreds of years. “Its origin is remote, millennial, as old as that of the pope itself,” says Alberto Salas, a Peruvian specialist who works on genetic diversity issues.

Used as an alternative to bread at breakfast, as an ingredient for various dishes in the background or as an input for soups, this food is a great option for various communities in the highlands that in November and December do not have fresh food.

Andes peruanos.

Elaboration process

The Incas adopted and improved the agricultural advances of earlier mountain cultures, and gave special importance to the production of maize. But the potato was decisive for the food security of his empire. In the vast network of warehouses in the Inca state, the potato – especially a product made from dried and frozen potatoes called chuño – was one of the main food items used to feed officers, soldiers and slaves, as well As a reserve for emergencies when crop failures occur.
The white chuño is obtained by means of a natural process of dehydration that lasts about 50 days, in which they take advantage of the strong frosts of the months of June and July and of the strong insolation.

The elaboration process is as follows:

Frozen: after harvesting the harvest in June the potatoes are exposed for 4 days to frost. During the day they are covered with straw to avoid their darkening due to the sudden change of temperature and insolation.
Soaking: after freezing, they are packed in sacks and submerged in the frozen waters of the Andean streams.
Pre-peeled: then the potatoes are exposed again to another cold night, for the next day to proceed peeling by treading them. A good part of the skin is shed and the water contained in the potatoes is lost.
Drying: peeled potatoes are exposed to the sun for 10 or 15 days, until complete drying of the tubers.
Peeled end: the dehydrated potatoes rub against each other to lose the last remains of skin, the white chuño thus acquires its characteristic appearance of white chalk and firm consistency.

Pisado del chuño.

This process entails that for every five kilos of potatoes is obtained a chuño, obtaining the advantage of being imperishable

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